Modern social science requires the ability to analyze data, construct models, and understand how statistics can be used (or misused) to justify policies. The PPE *pre-requirement* of rigorous reasoning is intended to help you with higher level coursework, especially your Capstone seminar.

Typically, calculus is required for those studying advanced economics, and statistics prepares students for social science research. While we think both are important, statistics is especially important for PPE, so we strongly advise taking at least one Stats course.

**** You must take at least one course from either of the following two lists ****

**College Requirement of Formal Reasoning**

MATH 104: Calculus, Part 1

MATH 114: Calculus, Part 2

*** *Please note that MATH 170 and MATH 103 do not count for the rigorous reasoning pre-requisite.*

**College Requirement of Quantitative Data Analysis**

STAT 101: Introductory Business Statistics

STAT 102: Introductory Business Statistics

STAT 111: Introductory Statistics

STAT 112: Introductory Statistics

ECON 103: Statistics for Economists

PSCI 107: Introduction to Data Science

PSCI 338: Statistical Methods for Political Science

SOCI 120: Social Statistics

COMM 210: Quantitative Methods in Communications

CRIM 250: Statistics for the Social Sciences