Rigorous Reasoning

Modern social science requires the ability to analyze data, construct models, and understand how statistics can be used (or misused) to justify policies. The PPE pre-requirement of rigorous reasoning is intended to help you with higher level coursework, especially your Capstone seminar. 

Typically, calculus is required for those studying advanced economics, and statistics prepares students for social science research. While we think both are important, statistics is especially important for PPE, so we strongly advise taking at least one STAT course.


** You must take one course from either Formal Reasoning or Quantitative Data Analysis in order to fulfill the Rigourous Reasoning requirement. Quantitative reasoning courses above the levels posted here may be accepted on an individual basis. **


College Requirement of Formal Reasoning

  • MATH 1070: Mathematics of Change, Part 1
  • MATH 1080: Mathematics of Change, Part 2
  • MATH 1400: Calculus, Part 1
  • MATH 1410: Calculus, Part 2
  • PHIL 0710: Logic and Formal Reasoning
  • PHIL 1710: Introduction to Logic

*** Please note that MATH 1700 and MATH 1300 do not count for the rigorous reasoning pre-requisite.


College Requirement of Quantitative Data Analysis

  • COMM 2100: Quantitative Methods in Communications
  • CRIM 1200: Statistics for the Social Sciences
  • ECON 2300: Statistics for Economists
  • PSCI 1800: Introduction to Data Science
  • PSCI 1801: Statistical Methods for Political Science
  • SOCI 2000: Sociological Research Methods
  • SOCI 2010: Social Statistics
  • STAT 1010: Introductory Business Statistics
  • STAT 1020: Introductory Business Statistics
  • STAT 1110: Introductory Statistics
  • STAT 1120: Introductory Statistics